HEALTH BELIEF PROFILE IN LOMBOK ISLAND, INDONESIA
The island's inhabitants are 85% Sasak whose origins are thought to have migrated from Java. Other residents include an estimated 10–15% Balinese, with the small remainder being Tionghoa-peranakan, Javanese, Sumbawanese and Arab Indonesians.
The Sasak population are culturally and linguistically closely related to the Balinese, but unlike the Hindu Balinese, the majority are Muslim and the landscape is punctuated with mosques and minarets. Islamic traditions and holidays influence the Island's daily activities.
Many influences of animist belief prevail within the Sasak people, most of whom believe in the existence of spirits or ghosts. They regard both food and prayer as indispensable whenever they seek to communicate with spirits, including the dead and ritualistic traditional practices endure. Traditional magic is practiced to ward off evil and illness and to seek solutions to disputations and antipathy. Magic may be practiced by an individual alone but normally a person experienced in such things is sought out to render a service. Normally money or gifts are made to this person and the most powerful practitioners are treated with considerable respect.
The belief about health, and well-being or wellness
A condition which physical and mental are balance. In other words, the soul of the sick person ( eg stress ) will be very influential to their physical . The reverse when the physical person having problems ( eg disability ) would be very influential for the psyche .
Cultural belief of preventive health behavior
Rebo Bontong is Sasak society traditional ritual to welcoming the month of Rabiul Awwal (Islamic Calender) every year. According to the belief that the Sasak people on Wednesday Bontong is the peak occurred Bala (disaster / disease), so that up to now still be trusted to start a job does not begin on Wednesday Bontong. They belief to do not start a job on Wednesday bontong
Menginang is a tradition of chewing materials as nut, betel, gambier, tobacco, limestone, clove
• Originally menginang as a flavoring in the mouth, but eventually became a habit that causes the pleasure and taste delicious so it is difficult to be released
• Betel, areca nut, gambier, tobacco, lime, clove
• Indonesian society belief that menginang can strengthen teeth, heal wounds in the mouth, eliminate bad breath, stop bleeding gums, as well as a mouthwash.
• a system of social relationships and values. For example, menginang materials used as dishes to honor the guests, and as a binder in the engagement before marriage.
• menginang also used in ceremonies and customs ceremonial or religious beliefs
• Betel (sirih) symbolizes humility and praise others, because betel trees need to live without damaging the rest
• Areca nut symbolizes good offspring, as seen from the tree that rises up, and a hope of getting a good and successful offspring
• Lime symbolizes good offspring
• Lime and tobacco symbolizes the steadfast heart and willing to sacrifice for others
Effect side of “menginang”
• Lesions in the oral cavity
• Oral cancer
• Scientific teams from Taiwan, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea have reported that expectant mothers who chew betel quid, during pregnancy, significantly increase adverse outcomes for the baby. The effects of betel quid and areca nut were similar to those reported for mothers who consume alcohol or tobacco during pregnancy. Lower birth weights, reduced birth length and early term were found to be significantly higher
Culture belief in Lombok people
• Should not played when “sandikala” time / sunset because it can can bring disease
• The new bride should not traveled to distant place
• Should not whistling in the house because it invite snakes
• A mother used to give “pakpak” rice (rice which has been chewed up by her mother in advance) to the baby so that the baby grow up healthy and strong. They believe that what comes out of the mouth of the mother is best for babies
Culture belief during pregnancy in Lombok people
• should not be sitting in the middle of the door : difficulties during delivery baby
• should not wrap the fabric around the neck : twisting of the umbilical cord
• should not tell age gestational to a stranger : avoiding the bad intentions of people
• The husband should not binding everything
• The husband should not be shaved
• Should not wear clothes during take a bath : can cause bleeding
• Should not put buttons on clothes : difficulties during delivery baby
• Do not eat fruit that was eaten by bat : baby can not get out because still hanging in the womb
• Should not eat shrimp : baby will born abnormally
The belief about illness, and the values about care-seeking or help seeking behaviors
Belief about illness:
Illness: suffering from a chronic disease (chronic), or other health problems that cause work activity / activities disrupted. Although a person is sick (terms of daily) such as colds, runny nose, but if he is not bothered to carry out its activities, it is not considered sick.
Help seeking behavior:
• The first action to overcome with illness is treated themself
• Belian sasak is a shaman or someone that doing treatment with the tools, materials and simple way, one of them is certain crops such as pegs earth, leaves and ginger bidara
• Massage by belian sasak
• Ustad / someone who teach about islam
• Peoples seeking the hospital when illness is severe
Traditional health practice and preference for traditional healers
• Massaged by “belian”
• Bubus or smear rugged tablet form formulated from a mixture of various types of traditional medicinal plants. The materials used are from natural materials such as of rice, roses, leaves medicine, bark, and others. In addition, when looking for or picking these materials should not be arbitrary but should be with any particular procedure, for example when picking roses from the stem must read “sholawat” and other prayer readings
• A maker of bubus usually only have the ability to mix one type bubus , hereditary obtained from the parents. So for different diseases people should also seek different bubus maker.